Assessment Tools

Assessment Tools


ABILITIES INDEX
Author: Rune J. Simeonsson, Donald B. Bailey
Publisher: FPG Publications, CB #8185, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-8185
Purpose: Documents the nature and extent of the functional characteristics of childhood disability.
Has potential to identify discrete profiles of functional characteristics
Age Range: 36-months to 69-months
Areas Tested: Index of 9 domains: Audition, Behavior and social skills, Intellectual function,
Limbs, Intentional communication, Tonicity, Integrity of physical health, Eyes, and Structural
status.

ACTIVITIES SCALE FOR KIDS (ASK)
Author: Nancy Young
Purpose: To assess physical function in children in both capacity and performance
Age Range: 5-years to 15-years
Areas Tested: 30-items in 7 domains: Personal care, Dressing, Other skills, Locomotion, Play,
Standing skills, and Transfers. Scale is available in the performance (ASKp) and capability (ASKc)
versions.

AGES & STAGES QUESTIONNAIRES (ASQ-3) – Third Edition
Authors: Diane Bricker, Jane Squires, & LaWanda Potter
Publisher: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Purpose: To determine the developmental level of a child through parent report
Age Range: 1-month to 66-months (2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 27, 30, 33, 36, 42,
48, 54, 60)
Areas Tested: 21-questionnaires each containing 30-items covering 5 areas of development:
Communication,
Gross motor, Fine motor, Problem solving, Personal-social

AGES & STAGES QUESTIONNAIRES: Social Emotional (ASQ:SE)
Authors: Jane Squires, Diane Bricker, and Elizabeth Twombly
Publisher: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Purpose: To help identify young children at risk for social emotional difficulties. Age Range:
3-months to 66-months (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60)
Area Tested: 22 to 36-questions on social and emotional behavior

ALBERTA INFANT MOTOR SCALE (AIMS)
Author: Martha C. Piper and Johanna Darrah
Publisher: WB Saunders Co., The Curtis Center, Independence Mall West, Philadelphia, PA
19106
Purpose: To identify infants and toddlers with gross motor delay and to evaluate gross motor skill
maturation over time
Age Range: Birth to 18-months
Areas Tested: 58-gross motor skill items divided among 4 positions: prone, supine, sitting,
standing
Each item observed for the components of: weight bearing, posture, and anti-gravity movement

ASSESSMENT, EVALUATION, AND PROGRAMMING SYSTEM FOR INFANTS AND CHILDREN (AEPS) – Second Edition
Author: Diane Bricker, Kristie Pretti-Frontczak, JoAnn (JJ) Johnson, & Elizabeth Straka, Publisher:
Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Purpose: To determine level of skill attainment, assist in the development of programmatic
outcomes, goals and objectives, and monitor progress toward attainment of outcomes over time
Age Range: Birth to 3-years and 3-years to 6-years years
Areas Tested: 228-items divided among 6-domains which are further divided into strands:
Fine motor (reach, grasp, release, functional use); Gross motor (movement in prone and supine,
balance in sitting, standing and walking, and play); Adaptive (feeding, hygiene, undressing);
Cognitive (sensory causality, problem-solving, pre-academic interaction with objects); Social
(interaction with adults, peers, and environment); Communication (pre-linguistic, expressive,
receptive)

ASSESSMENT OF LIFE HABITS (LIFE-H)
Authors: Luc Noreau, Patrick Fougeyrollas, Claude Vincent
Publisher: INDCP, 525, boul. Wildrif-Hamel Est, local A-08, Quebec, Canada G1M 2S8
Purpose: To evaluate social participation in life activities of people with disabilities. Age
Range: Birth to 13-years
Areas Tested: Long Form: 242-questions in 12-categories: Nutrition, Fitness, Personal care,
Communication, Housing, Mobility, Responsibilities, Interpersonal relationships, Community life,
Education, Employment, and Recreation. Each question scored on level of accomplishment, types of
assistance required and level of satisfaction.
Short Form: 77-questions in the above 12-categories

BATTELLE DEVELOPMENTAL INVENTORY, SECOND EDITION (BDI-2)
Authors: Jean Newborg
Publisher: Riverside Publishing Co., 8420 Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL 60631
Purpose: Judgment or performance based measure administered through structured format, interviews
with caregivers or naturalistic observations. Screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of early
development
Age Range: Birth to 8-years
Areas Tested: Gross motor, Fine motor, Personal-social, Language and Cognitive skills,

BAYLEY INFANT NEURODEVELOPMENTAL SCREENER (BINS)
Author: Glen P. Aylward
Publisher: Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259
Purpose: To identify infants who are at risk for delays or neurological impairments
Age Range: 3-months to 24-months
Areas Tested: 72-items divided among 6 age sets (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months) each containing
11-13 items. Items are categorized into 4 “conceptual areas of ability”: Basic neurological
functions/intactness (tone, reflexes, and abnormal signs); Receptive functions (visual, auditory,
verbal); Expressive functions (gross motor, fine motor, vocalizations); Cognitive processes
(memory, problem solving, object permanence, attention)

BAYLEY SCALES OF INFANT DEVELOPMENT-III
Author: Nancy Bayley
Publisher: Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259
Purpose: To identify developmental delay and to monitor a child's developmental progress
Age Range: 1-month to 42- months
Areas Tested: Consists of 3 scales: Mental (cognition, object permanence, memory,
manipulation, problem solving, verbal communication, and comprehension) Motor (gross and fine motor
development/ skill acquisition);
Behavior (qualitative aspects of child's behavior during administration of mental and motor scale)

BERG BALANCE TEST
Authors: Katherine Berg, Sharon Wood-Dauphinee, JI Williams, David Gayton
Purpose: Measures balance during movement activities
Age Range: 5-years and older
Areas Tested: 14 items including common movement activities such as picking an object up from the
floor, walking and turning

BRIGANCE INVENTORY OF EARLY DEVELOPMENT, REVISED EDITION (BDIED-R)
Author : Albert Brigance
Publisher: Curriculum Associates, 5 Esquire Road, North Billerica, MA 01862-2589
Purpose: Commonly used assessment in early intervention and preschool programs to determine
developmental delay in several domains and for program planning.
Age Range: Birth to 7-years
Areas Tested: Criterion-referenced test of: psychomotor, self-help, speech and language, general
knowledge and comprehension, early academic skills and social-emotional development.

BRUININKS-OSERETSKY TEST OF MOTOR PROFICIENCY, SECOND EDITION (BOT-2)
Author: Robert Bruininks, Brett Bruininks
Publisher: Pearson, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: Developmental motor skills
Age Range: 4-years to 21-years
Areas Tested: Fine motor precision, fine motor integration, manual dexterity, bilateral
coordination, balance, running speed and agility, upper-limb coordination, strength

CANADIAN OCCUPATIONAL PERFORMANCE MEASURE
Author: Mary Law, Sue Baptiste, Anne Carswell, Mary Ann McCall, Helene Polatajko, & Nancy
Pollock
Publisher: CTTC Building, Suite 3400, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5RI Purpose: To
detect changes in parent or child’s self-perception of performance over time. Age Range: Any
Areas Tested: Satisfaction and disability rating of daily activities and routines, which are,
identified by the child and family as important part of daily life

CAPUTE SCALES: CAT/CLAMS
Author: Arnold J. Capute
Purpose: To quantify delay in language and problem solving
Age Range: 1-month to 36-months
Areas Tested: Cognitive Adaptive Test (CAT): visual-motor skills, problem solving
Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS): receptive and expressive language

CAROLINA CURRICULUM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS, THIRD EDITION (CCITSN)
Authors: Nancy M. Johnson-Martin, Susan M. Attermeier, and Bonnie J. Hacker
Publisher: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Purpose: Curriculum based assessment used to determine approximate developmental level of children
and programming strategies

Age Range: Birth to 36-months
Areas Tested: 359-items and curricula content covering 24 areas of development (sequences) divided
among 5 developmental domains: Cognition, Communication, Social/adaptation, Fine motor, Gross motor

CAROLINA CURRICULUM FOR PRESCHOOLERS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS (CCPSN) Authors: Nancy M. Johnson-Martin,
Susan M. Attermeier, and Bonnie Hacker
Publisher: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Purpose: Curriculum based assessment used to determine approximate developmental level of children
and programming strategies
Age Range: 2-years to 5-years
Areas Tested: More than 400 items and curriculum content covering 22 sequences divided among 5
domains of development: Cognition, Communication, Social Adaptation, Fine Motor,
Gross Motor

CHILD HEALTH AND ILLNESS PROFILE- ADOLESCENT EDITION (CHIP-AE)
Author : B. Starfield, M. Berger, M. Ensminger, A. Riley, S. Ryan, B.Green,
Publisher: Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, E4519, Baltimore, Maryland
21205
Purpose: Detects differences in health status among children with chronic illness. Age Range:
11-years to 17-years
Areas Tested: Self-administered questionnaire of health assessment. Domains covered: comfort,
satisfaction with health, risk, disorder, achievement of social expectations and resilience

CHILD HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE (CHQ)
Author: Jeanne Landgraf, Linda Abetz, John Ware
Publisher: Quality Metric Inc., 640 George Washington Hwy., Suite 201, Lincoln, RI 02865
Purpose: Measures physical and psychosocial health concepts
Age Range: 2-months to 17-years
Areas Tested: Judgment based quality of life instrument, completed by parent or child.

CHILD HEALTH ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE (CHAQ)
Author: G. Singh, B. Arthreya, JF Fries, D. Goldsmith, B. Ostrov
Purpose: Judgment based quality of life measure; developed primarily for children with arthritis
but has been used for children with other physical disabilities
Age Range: Any age
Areas Tested: Performance of activities of daily living and assistance required.

CHILDREN’S ASSESSMENT OF PARTICIPATION AND ENJOYMENT (CAPE) & PREFERENCES FOR ACTIVITIES OF
CHILDREN (PAC)
Authors: Gillian King, Mary Law, Susanne King, Patricia Hurley, Peter Rosenbaum, Steven
Hanna, Marilyn Kertoy, and Nancy Young
Publisher: Pearson, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: To examine how children and youth participate in recreation and leisure activities outside
of school
Age Range: 6-years to 21-years
Areas Tested: Both measures contain 55-items related to children’s participation scored on 3
levels: overall participation; formal and informal activities; and type of activity (recreational,
active physical, social, skill-based, and self-improvement). Scores in these areas can be obtains
for 5- dimensions on CAPE (diversity, intensity, enjoyment, with whom and where) and for
1-dimension on the PAC (preference)

CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL OF EASTERN ONTARIO PAIN SCALE (CHEOPS) Authors: P.J. McGrath, G. Johnson, J.T.
Goodman, J. Schillinger, and J. Dunn Publisher: Advances in Pain Research Therapy. 1985;9:395-402.
Purpose: To evaluate postoperative pain in young children
Age Range: Birth to 4-years
Areas Tested: Points awarded for observation of 6-parameters: cry, facial, child verbal, torso,
touch, legs

CHILDREN’S AND INFANTS POSTOPERATIVE PAIN SCALE (CHIPPS) Authors: W. Buttner, W. Finke, M. Hilleke,
S. Reckert, L. Vsianska, A. Brambrink Publisher: Paediatric Anaesthesia 2000 10: 303–318
Purpose: To assess postoperative pain in infants
Age Range: Birth to 5-years
Areas Tested: crying, facial expression, posture of the trunk, posture of the legs, and motor
restlessness

CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS OF MOTOR AND POSTURAL SKILLS 2ND EDITION (COMPS)
Author : Brenda Wilson, Nancy Pollack, Bonnie Kaplan, & Mary Law
Publisher: Therapro, 225 Arlington Street, Framingham, MA 01702-8723
Purpose: Screens for subtle motor coordination problems. Age Range: 5-years to 9-years screening
Areas Tested: Tests subtle motor coordination during slow movements, arm rotation, finger-nose
touching, prone extension posture, prone extension posture, asymmetrical tonic neck reflex, and
supine flexion posture.

CRIES (CRIES, REQUIRES OXYGEN, INCREASED VITAL SIGNS, EXPRESSION, SLEEPLESSNESS)
DEGANGI-BERK TEST OF SENSORY INTEGRATION (TSI)
Author : Georgia Degani & Ronald Berk
Publisher: Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025
Purpose: Screens for sensory integration dysfunction in preschoolers. Age Range: 3-years to 5-years
Areas Tested: Criterion-referenced test of postural control, bilateral motor integration and reflex
integration.

DENVER DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING TEST-II
Author: William K. Frankenburg, Josiah Dodds, Phillip Archer, Beverly Bresnick, Patrick Maschka,
Norman Edelman, and Howard Shapiro
Publisher: Denver Developmental Materials, Inc., PO Box 6919, Denver, CO 80206-0919
Purpose; to detect potential developmental problems in young children and monitor children at- risk
for developmental problems
Age Range: 1-week to 6-years, 6-months
Areas Tested: 125-items divided among 4 areas of function: Personal-social (behavior, caring for
self); Fine motor-adaptive (eye-hand coordination, manipulation of small objects, problem solving);
Language (hearing, speaking, and understanding); Gross motor (sitting, walking, and
jumping.) Also, 5 subjective "Test Behavior" items assessing overall test behavior.

DEVELOPMENTAL HAND DYSFUNCTION 2ND EDITION
Author : Rhonda Erhardt
Publisher: Therapy Skill Builders, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: Used to determine delay or dysfunction in prehension skills, but without standardized
scores. Useful tool in intervention planning.
Age Range: Birth-15-months
Areas Tested: Criterion-referenced assessment of prehension including positional-reflexive,
cognitively directed movement and prewriting skills.

DEVELOPMENTAL OBSERVATION CHECKLIST SYSTEM (DOCS) Author: Wayne P. Hresko, Shirley Miguel, Rita
Sherbenou, & Steve Burton Publisher: PRO ED, Inc., 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78757-6897
Purpose: Provides general developmental assessment. Age Range: Birth – 6-years
Areas Tested: Norm-referenced checklist covering language, motor, social and cognitive
development. Also includes adjustment behavior and parent stress and support.

DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAMMING FOR INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN - REVISED (DPIYC)
Author: D. Sue Schafer, Martha S. Moersch, and Diane B. D'Eugenio
Publisher: University of Michigan Press, 389 Green Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104
Purpose: To describe the developmental status of a child with a disability and assist with program
planning and implementation
Age Range: Early Intervention Developmental Profile (EIDP): Birth to 36-months
Areas Tested: The EIDP has 299 items divided into 6 areas of development: Cognition, Gross
Motor, Fine Motor, Language, Social-emotional, Self-care

DEVELOPMENTAL TEST OF VISUAL-MOTOR INTEGRATION – SIXTH EDITION (VMI)
Author : Keith E. Beery, PhD, Norman A. Buktenica, and Natasha A. Beery
Publisher: Pearson, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: Easy test to determine problems in visual-motor integration important in writing and
reading.
Age Range: 2-years and older
Areas Tested: Norm-referenced test of visual perception, motor coordination, and integration.

DEVELOPMENTAL TEST OF VISUAL PERCEPTION – 2ND EDITION (DTVP-2)
Author : Donald Hammil, Nils Person, & Judith Voress
Publisher: Assists in distinguishing between problems in visual perception verses visual-motor
problems.
Purpose: PRO-ED, Inc., 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78757
Age Range: 4-years to 10-years
Areas Tested: Norm-referenced test of form consistency, figure ground, position in space and
spatial relation.

DEVEREUX EARLY CHILDHOOD ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (DECA)
Author: P. A. LeBuffe, & J. A. Naglieri
Purpose: To measure resilience in preschool children. Resilience is defined as the ability to
recover from or adjust to misfortune or change.
Age Range: Ages 2-years to 5-years
Areas Tested: The tool therefore addresses the child’s social emotional development

EARLY INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENTAL PROFILE (EDP)- Revised Edition
Authors: D. Susan Schafer, Martha Moersch
Purpose: Developmental screening tool
Age Range: Birth to 3-years
Areas Tested: Cognition, gross motor, language, perceptual / fine motor, self-care,
social/emotional

ENERGY EXPENDITURE INDEX (EEI)
Authors: Jessica Rose, James G. Gamble, Jane Lee, Robert Lee, William L. Haskell
Publisher: (1991) Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics. 11(5):571
Purpose: Measure of endurance
Age Range: 3-years and older
Areas Tested: Calculation of heart rate, distance walked and time, Working HR – Resting Heart
Rate/ Speed

ERHARDT DEVELOPMENTAL PREHENSION ASSESSMENT (EDPA) - Second Edition
Author: Rhonda P. Erhardt
Purpose: To describe the quality of both right and left arm and hand prehension patterns for
treatment planning
Age Range: Birth to 15-months
Areas Tested: 341-items divided into 3 sections: 1.Positional-reflexive: involuntary arm-hand
patterns; 2. Cognitively directed: voluntary movements of approach, grasp, manipulation, and
release 3. Pre-writing skills: pencil grasp and drawing

FACE, LEGS, ACTIVITY, CRY, AND CONSOLABILITY BEHAVIORAL PAIN SCALE (FLACC)
Authors: Sandra I. Merkel, Terri Voepel-Lewis, Jay R. Shayevitz, Shobha Malviya
Publisher: Pediatric Nursing. 1997 May-Jun;23(3):293-7.
Purpose: To quantify pain behaviors in children who are not able to verbalize pain
Age Range: Birth to 18-years
Areas Tested: Observation of facial expression, leg movement, activity, cry and consolability

FACES PAIN SCALE
Author : D. Bieri, R. Reeve, L. Addicoat, & J. Ziegler.
Publisher: (1990). The Faces Pain Scale for the self-assessment of the severity of pain experienced
by children. Pain, 41, 139-150.
Purpose: Measures self reporting of pain intensity, although probably a better measure of child’s
emotional distress.
Age Range: 6-years to 8-years
Areas Tested: Pain intensity rating scale using pictures of faces

FIRSTSTEP: SCREENING TEST FOR EVALUATING PRESCHOOLERS (FirstSTEPTM) Author : Lucy Jane Miller
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259
Purpose: Determine delay in all developmental areas. Age Range: 2.9-years to 6.2-years
Areas Tested: Norm-referenced screening test of cognition, communication, motor, social- emotional,
and adaptive behavior.

FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE MEASURE FOR CHILDREN (WeeFIM)
Authors: Carl Granger, Susan Braun, Kim Griswood, Nancy Heyer, Margaret McCabe, Michael
Msau, and Byron
Hamilton
Publisher: Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation, State Univ. of New York, Research
Foundation, 82 Farbert Hall SUNY South Campus, Buffalo, NY 14214
Purpose: To determine the severity of a child's disability, the measurement of caregiver assistance
needed in the performance of functional activities, and outcomes of rehabilitation Age Range:
Children without disabilities: 6-months to 8-years; Children with developmental disabilities:
6-months to
12-years; Children with developmental disabilities and mental ages less than 7-years
Areas Tested: 18-items grouped into 2 major categories of function: motor and cognition that are
divided into 6 domains divided into sub domains:
Motor: Self-care (eating, grooming, bathing, dressing, toileting); Sphincter control (bladder and
bowel management); Transfers (chair, wheelchair, toilet, tub, and shower); Locomotion
(wheelchair/crawl, stairs);
Cognitive: Communication (comprehension, expression); Social cognition (social interaction, problem
solving, and memory.)

FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE MEASURE (FIM)
Authors: Dodds, Heinemann
Purpose: Measures mobility in the home and community environment & ability to perform ADLs
Age Range: 7-years through adulthood
Areas Tested: Performance in self-care, sphincter control, transfers, locomotion, communication and
social cognition

FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT GRID (FOAG)
Author: Phillipa H. Campbell
Purpose: To assist team in developing and implementing functional outcomes for children with
disabilities
Age Range: No specific age range. Individualized based on desired outcomes thus age is not a factor
Areas Tested: 6 functional outcome areas associated with 4 disability categories (physical,
sensory, special health care needs, and other): Caring for self, Communication, Learning and
problem solving, Mobility, Play and leisure skills, Socialization. Performance areas delineated
within each outcome area. Performance areas: posture and alignment against gravity, movement
patterns, movement of body in space, secondary physical disabilities. Performance areas are further
divided into performance components with items such as weight shifting, muscle tone,
oral-motor control, transitional movements and movement patterns, etc.

FUNCTIONAL REACH TEST (FRT)
Purpose: Measure of anticipatory standing balance when reaching
Age Range: 4-years and older
Areas Tested: Measurement of the distance that the child can reach forward from a stationary
standing position

GESELL AND AMATRUDA DEVELOPMENTAL AND NEUROLOGIC EXAMINATION - REVISED
Author: Hilda Knobloch, Frances Stevens, Anthony Malone (1987)
Purpose: It is a norm-referenced test identifying minor deviations in the areas of development and
it is used to determine developmental status.
Age Range: 4-weeks to 36-months
Areas Tested: 5 areas of development: gross motor, fine motor, language, personal/social, adaptive

GROSS MOTOR FUNCTION MEASURE (GMFM)
Authors: Dianne Russell, Peter Rosenbaum, Carolyn Gowland, Susan Hardy, Mary Lane, Nancy
Plews, Heather McGavin, David Cadman, and Sheila Jarvis
Publisher: Clinics in Developmental Medicine, No. 159, London, England: Mac Keith Press Purpose: To
evaluate change in gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy, describe a child's current
level of motor function, and determine treatment goals
Age Range: No specific age range is recommended by the authors; however, the test has been
validated on children between 5-months and 16-years.
Areas Tested: 88- items of gross motor function divided into 5 dimensions: Lying and rolling,
Sitting, Crawling and kneeling, Standing, Walking, running, and jumping. Items were selected to
represent those typically performed by children by age 5. Also, available in a 66-item version.

GROSS MOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURE (GMPM)
Author: W. Boyce, C. Gowland, P. Rosenbaum, S. Hardy, C. Lane, N. Plews, C. Goldsmith, D. Russell,
V. Wright, S. Potter, D. Harding
Publisher: Social Program Evaluation Group at Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario, Canada.
Purpose: To evaluate the quality of movement of children with cerebral palsy
Age Range: 5-months to 12-years
Areas Tested: 20-items for 5 attributes: Alignment, Coordination, Dissociated movements, Stability,
and Weight shift.

HARRIS INFANT MOTOR TEST (HINT) (Development Edition 3)
Author: Susan Harris
Publisher: Pro-Ed Inc, Austin, TX
Purpose: to screen for potential motor and cognitive developmental disorders in infants. Age Range:
2.5-months to 12.5-months
Areas Tested: 4-general areas: Background information about the child and caregiver; Assessment of
caregiver’s level of concern about the infant’s movement and play; 21-item assessment of infant’s
movement against gravity, muscle tone, behaviour and cooperation,
stereotypical behaviours, and head circumference; and Overall clinician impression of the infant’s
development

HEALTH UTILITIES INDEX – MARK 3 (HUI-3)
Author: William Furlong
Purpose: Measures children’s functional health status; can compute cardinal utility value to
represent Health Related Quality of Life
Age Range: Any age
Areas Tested: Questionnaire completed by caregiver in 8 domains: Ambulation, Dexterity, Speech,
Vision, Hearing, Cognition, Emotion, and Pain

HELP- STRANDS - INSIDE THE HAWAII EARLY LEARNING PROFILE (Inside-HELP)
Author: Stephanie Parks
Publisher: VORT Corporation, PO Box 6032, Palo Alto, CA 94306
Purpose: To provide definitions and guidelines for administration and scoring of skills and serve
as a reference for all the HELP curriculum and assessment materials
Age Range: Birth to 36-months
Areas Tested: 685 skills divided among 40 developmentally sequenced conceptual strands covering 7
domains-Regulatory/sensory organization (sensory processing); Cognition (symbolic play, imitation,
sound awareness, spatial relationships, concepts, discrimination); Language
(receptive, expressive); Gross motor (weight bearing, mobility and transitional movements,
reflexes and reactions, advanced postural control); Fine motor (visual tracking, grasp, reach,
voluntary release, midline skills, spatial perception, manipulative prehension); Social-emotional
(attachment/separation, development of self, emotional expression, learning rules, social
interactions); Self- help (oral motor development, dressing, independent feeding, sleep patterns,
grooming and hygiene, toileting, household independence)

HOME OBSERVATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (HOME)
Author: Bettye M. Caldwell and Robert H. Bradley
Purpose: A screening tool to identify the quality and quantity of social, emotional and cognitive
supports available to the child in the home environment
Age Range: Infant and toddlers version birth to 3-years
Areas Tested; Infant and toddlers version: 45-items clustered into 6 subscales: Parental
responsivity, Acceptance of child, Organization of the environment, Play materials, Parental
involvement with the child, Variety of stimulation.

INFANT DEVELOPMENTAL SCREENING SCALE (IDSS)
Author: W. Jane Proctor
Purpose: To assess developmental status of newborns
Age Range: Normal and at-risk infants between 38 to 42 weeks gestational age; can also be used
sequentially on infants from 32 to 40 weeks gestational age.
Areas Tested: 24-items divided into 2 groups:
Behavioral (habituation, attention/interaction, motor responses, physiological system, abnormal
posture or movements) Reflexes (rooting, suck, hand grasp, toe grasp, Babinski, ankle clonus,
positive support, walk, placing, crawl, ATNR, Moro)

INFANT MOTOR PROFILE (IMP)
Author: Kirsten Heineman, Arend Bos, Mijna Hadders-Algra
Publisher: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2008;50(4):275-82.
Purpose: to assess neuromotor condition in infancy to screen for early detection of developmental
motor disorders.
Age Range: 3-months to 18-months
Areas Tested: Motor behavior is evaluated in: supine, prone, sitting, standing and walking.
Reaching, grasping and manipulation of objects are evaluated in supine and in supported sitting
conditions

INFANT MOTOR SCREEN (IMS)
Author: Robert E. Nickel
Purpose: To determine the neuromotor status of infants prematurely born
Age Range: 4-months to 16-months corrected age
Areas Tested: 25-items adapted from the Milani-Comparetti and the Movement Assessment of
Infants
Muscle tone, Primitive reflexes, Automatic responses, Symmetry

INFANT NEUROLOGICAL INTERNATIONAL BATTERY (INFANIB)
Authors: Patricia H. Ellison
Publisher: Therapy Skill Builders, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: To distinguish infants with normal neuromotor function from those with abnormal findings
and to predict need for follow-up treatment
Age Range: 1-month to 18-months infants and toddlers at risk for developmental delay, especially
those born premature
Areas Tested: 20-items divided into 5 content domains: Spasticity (TLR, ATNR, hands
open/closed); Vestibular function (parachute, body rotative); Head and trunk control (pull to sit,
body derotative, sitting, prone posture); French angles (scarf sign, heel-to-ear, popliteal angle,
and hip abduction); Legs (foot grasp, positive support reaction, dorsiflexion)

INFANT TODDLER DEVELOPMENTAL ASSESSMENT (IDA)-PROVENCE PROFILE
Author: Sally Provence, Joanna Erikson, Susan Vater, and Saro Palmeri
Purpose: To determine a performance age range and a descriptive summary of a child’s developmental
competencies
Age Range: Birth to 3-years
Areas Tested: 6-phase process of evaluation with phase 4 a developmental assessment
(Provence Profile).
Assessment items are grouped by age sets and the number of items varies at each age set and within
each domain
Phase One: Referral and Pre-interview Data Gathering. Phase Two: Initial Parent Interview. Phase
Three: Health Review. Phase Four -The Provence Profile: Developmental Observation and Assessment: 8
developmental domains: Gross Motor, Fine Motor, Relationship to Inanimate
Objects (Cognitive), Language/Communication, Self-Help, Relationship to Persons, Emotions and
Feeling States (affects), and Coping. Phase Five: Integration and Synthesis. Phase Six: Share
Findings, Completion, and Report

INFANT/TODDLER SENSORY PROFILE
Author: Winnie Dunn
Publisher: Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259
Purpose: Provides a standard method for measuring an infant’s sensory processing with the child’s
daily life performance.
Age Range: Birth to 36-months
Areas Tested: sensory systems

INFANT/TODDLER SYMPTOM CHECKLIST: A Screening Tool for Parents (ITS)
Author: Georgia A. DeGangi, Susan Poisson, Ruth Z. Sickel, and Andrea Santman Wiener
Publisher: Pearson, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: To identify infants at risk for sensory integrative disorders, attentional deficits, and
emotional or behavioral problems
Age Range: 7-months to 30-months
Areas Tested: 5 age specific checklists (7-9, 10-12, 13-18, 19-24, 25-30) containing information on
9 domains. Self-regulation (fussy-difficult behaviors such as crying, difficulty with transitions);
sleep patterns (difficulty falling asleep, attention, difficulty initiating and shifting
attention); eating, feeding dressing or bathing (gagging, vomiting, food preferences, behavior
problems during feeding, dressing, bathing); touch (tactile hypersensitivities, intolerance in
being confined); movement (activity level, motor planning difficulties, balance, postural
insecurity); listening- language and sound (hyposensitivity to sound, language problems); looking
and sight (sensitivity to light, visual distractibility); attachment/emotional functioning (gaze
aversion, mood deregulation, flat affect, separation problems.) There is also a general screening
version.

KIDSCREEN
Author: U. Ravens-Sieberer, A. Gosch, L. Rajmil, M. Erhart, J. Bruil, W. Duer, P. Auquier, M.
Power, T. Abel, L. Czemy, J. Mazur, A. Czimbalmos, Y. Tountas, C. Hagquist, J. Kilroe, and the
European KIDSCREEN Group.
Publisher: Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.
Purpose: To assess children’s and adolescents’ subjective health and well-being. Age Range: 8-years
to 18-years
Areas Tested: Three versions: 1. KIDSCREEN-52 contain 52-items in 10 dimensions: physical
well-being, psychological well-being, moods and emotions, self-perception, autonomy, parent
relations and home life, financial resources, peer and social support, school environment, and
bullying; 2. KIDSCREEN-27 contaisn 27-items in 5 dimensions: physical well-being, psychological
well-being, autonomy and parent relations, peer and social support and school environment; 3.
KIDSCREEN-10 contains 10-items on general health related quality of life.

LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY TAPE MEASURE
Authors: Staheli
Purpose: Measure of leg length
Age Range: Any age
Areas Tested: Tape measurement from ASIS to medial malleoli
MANUAL MUSCLE TEST (MMT) Purpose: Measure of muscle strength Age Range: 4-years and older
Areas Tested: Contraction of muscles and if strong enough, application of manual resistance to the
muscle contractions; Strength judged on ordinal scale

MEADE MOVEMENT CHECKLIST (MMCL)
Author: Vicki Meade
Purpose: To screen infants for neuromotor delays
Age Range: 4-months to 6-months
Areas Tested: Flexor and extensor control is observed in 6 positions or transitional movements: -
Sitting on lap (awareness to the surroundings); Prone (orientation of infant's body, tolerance of
position); Rolling to back (position of head, shoulder, pelvis, and hips); Supine (infant's
alertness to self and external stimulus); Sitting (position of head, shoulders, pelvis, and hips);
Standing (weight bearing through body, tolerance to position, Ventral suspension, lifting of the
head and
active movement of legs throughout hips/pelvis)

MERRILL-PALMER SCALE-REVISED (2003)
Authors : Gale H. Roid, and Jackie L. Sampers
Publisher: Stoelting Co., 620 Wheat Lane, Wood Dale, IL 60191
Purpose: The new addition of the motor measures makes this a comprehensive assessment that can be
used from birth to kindergarten to determine delay or dysfunction and evaluate intervention
effectiveness.
Age Range: 2-months to 78-months
Areas Tested: Norm-referenced, standardized measure of cognitive (reasoning, memory, visual, etc.),
language and motor (fine and gross), self-help/adaptive and social-emotional development. Patterns
of development are assessed. Includes supplemental parent and examiner ratings.

MILANI-COMPARETTI MOTOR DEVELOPMENT SCREENING TEST, Third Edition (MC)
Author: A. Milani-Comparetti and E.A. Gidoni, Wayne Stuberg, Project Director for revised edition
Publisher: Meyer Children’s Rehabilitation Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 444
South 44th Street, Omaha, NE 68131-3795
Purpose: To identify motor dysfunction in infants by systematically examining the integration of
primitive reflexes and the emergence of volitional movement against gravity
Age Range: Birth to 2-years
Areas Tested: 27- items divided into 2 groups: Spontaneous motor behaviors (locomotion, sitting,
standing); Evoked responses (equilibrium reactions, protective extension reactions, righting
reactions, primitive reflexes).

MILLER ASSESSMENT OF PRESCHOOLERS (MAP)
Author : Lucy Jane Miller
Publisher: The Foundation for Knowledge in Development, 1855 West Union Avenue, Suite B-8,
Englewood, CO 80110
Purpose: Determination of preschoolers, without major problems, who are at risk for preacademic
problems.
Age Range: 2-years, 9-months to 5-years, 8-months
Areas Tested: Norm-referenced test of sensory and motor foundations and coordination, verbal and
nonverbal cognitive skills and complex tasks.

MODIFIED ASHWORTH SCALE (MAS) Authors: Bohannon RW. Smith MB.
Purpose: Measure of resistance to passive movement associated with spasticity
Age Range: 4-years and older
Areas Tested: Passive movement of a limb (usually the leg) through range while judging the
resistance to the movement; resistance judged on ordinal scale

MOTOR SKILLS ACQUISITION IN THE FIRST YEAR & CHECKLIST
Author: Lois Bly
Publisher: Therapy Skill Builders, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: To monitor motor development and assist in intervention planning for infants with motor
delays or dysfunction.
Age Range: Birth to 12-months
Areas Tested: Detailed explanation with photographs and checklist of gross motor development and
indications of possible disturbances in motor development.

MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT BATTERY FOR CHILDREN – SECOND EDITION (MOVEMENT ABC-2)
Author: Shelia Henderson & David Sugden
Publisher: Pearson, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: Identifies impairments in motor function of children with milder movement disorders.
Includes qualitative & quantitative information.
Age Range: 3-years to 12-years

Areas Tested: Norm-referenced standardized performance test of manual dexterity, ball skills and
static and dynamic balance. Also included is a checklist of daily routine activities, consideration
of the context of performance and behavioral attributes.

MOVEMENT ASSESSMENT OF INFANTS (MAI)
Author: Lynnette S. Chandler, Mary S. Andrews, and Marcia W. Swanson
Publisher: Infant Movement Research, PO Box 4631, Rolling Bay, WA 98061
Purpose: To identify motor dysfunction in infants, especially those considered at-risk and monitor
the effects of physical therapy on infants whose motor behaviors is at or below one year of age Age
Range; Birth to 12-months
Areas Tested: 65-items within 4 areas of neuromotor functioning: Muscle tone (anti-gravity
postures, resistance to passive stretch, and consistency); Reflexes (relative presence or absence
of primitive reflexes); Automatic reactions (righting, equilibrium, and protective); Volitional
movement (gross and fine motor behaviors, hearing and vision).

NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION OF NEWBORN BEHAVIOR (NONB)
Author: Heidelise Als
Purpose: To develop a profile of the infants' physiological and behavioral responses to
environmental demands and care giving.
Age Range: Neonates to 4-weeks post term
Areas Tested: 91-behaviors based on the conceptual framework underlying the Assessment of
Preterm
Infant Behavior (APIB): Autonomic (respiration, color, tremors, and twitch); Visceral (gagging,
burp, spit
up, and sounds); Motor (tone, posture, gross motor flexion or extension, upper and lower extremity
movement);
State-related (attention related behaviors) (eye movement, facial expressions, and gross body
movements)

NEONATAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT SCALE, 3rd Edition (NBAS)
Author: T. Berry Brazelton and J. Kevin Nugent
Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th Street, New York, NY 10011
Purpose: To assess and describe infant's interactions and behaviors within the context of a dynamic
relationship with a caregiver. Results provide information regarding infant's ability to handle
stressors and self-organize.
Originally designed to study individual differences in neonates that contribute to infant-caregiver
interactions and for studying group differences among infants.
Age Range: Full term neonates 37-weeks to 48-weeks post-conceptual age. Supplemental items are
provided to test infants born less than 37-weeks
Areas Tested: 28- behavioral and 18-elicited items that provide information in 5 packages:
Habituation (response decrement); Motor-Oral (reflexes of the feet, rooting, sucking, glabella);
Truncal (undressing and moderate handling such as pull to sit, grasp); Vestibular (maximal handling
and stimulating items (TNR, Moro)); Social-Interactive (state dependent orientation items.) There
are also 9 supplemental (optional items), 5 of which were devised by Als and 1 devised by Horowitz
to be used with babies born premature

NEONATAL INDIVIDUALIZED DEVELOPMENTAL CARE AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NIDCAP)
Author: Heidelise Als
Publisher: National NIDCAP Training Center, Enders Pediatric Research Laboratories, The
Children’s Hospital, 320 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115
Purpose: Used to determine the infant’s physiological and behavioral responses to the environment
to assist parents and caregivers.
Training program recommended to become reliable in test administration.
Age Range: Neoates to 4-weeks post-term

Areas Tested: Criterion-referenced assessment of physiological and behavioral responses in the
areas of autonomic, motor and attention.

NEONATAL INFANT PAIN SCALE (NIFP)
Author: J. Lawrence, D. Alcock, P. McGrath, J. Kay, S.B. MacMurray, C. Dulberg
Publisher: Neonatal Network. 1993;12(6):59-66.
Purpose: To measure pain in preterm and full term infants
Age Range: Birth to 1-year
Areas Tested: Scored on 6 parameters: facial expression, cry, breathing patterns, arms, legs, state
of arousal

NEONATAL NEUROBEHAVIORAL EXAMINATION (NNE) Author: Andrew Morgan, Vera Koch, Vicki Lee, and Jean
Aldag Purpose: To determine neurobehavioral status of infants
Age Range: 32-weeks to 42-weeks post conceptional age
Areas Tested: 27- items divided into 3 sections each having 9 items: Tone and motor patterns,
Primitive reflexes, Behavioral responses

NEONATAL ORAL MOTOR ASSESSMENT SCALE (NOMAS)
Author: Murray A. Braun and Marjorie M. Palmer
Purpose: To screen for oral motor dysfunction in the neonate, distinguish infants with normal
sucking from those with disorganization, identify infants with poor feeding abilities, and
distinguish inefficient from efficient feeders
Age Range: Neonate to 3-months of age
Areas Tested: 26-items divided into 2 categories: jaw movements and tongue movements: Rate,
Rhythmicity, Consistency of degree of jaw excursion, Direction, range of motion, timing of tongue
movement, Tongue configuration

NEUROBEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT OF PRETERM INFANT (NAPI)
Author: Anneliese Korner and Valerie Thom
Purpose: To assess neurobehavioral status of prematurely born infants, to monitor effects of
intervention, and to document individual differences
Age Range: 32-weeks to 37-weeks conceptual age
Areas Tested: 71- items divided into 7 clusters: Motor development and vigor, Scarf sign, Popliteal
angle, Alertness and orientation, Irritability, Vigor of cry, Percent sleep

NEUROLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE PRETERM AND FULL-TERM NEW BORN INFANT,
2nd Edition (NAPFI)
Author: Lilly Dubowitz, Victor Dubowitz, Eugenio Mercuri
Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th Street, New York, NY 10011
Purpose: To document status of the nervous system in infants, document neurological maturation
and/or change in infants
Age Range: Full term infants up to the third day of life and preterm infants who are medically
stable and can tolerate handling up to term gestation age
Areas Tested: 33-items divided into 4 categories: Habituation (visual and auditory stimuli);
Movement and tone (posture, tone of limbs, trunk and neck, abnormal movements); Reflexes
(tendon reflexes, primitive reflexes); Neurobehavioral characteristics (selected items from
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale)

NEUROLOGICAL EXAM OF THE FULL TERM INFANT, 2nd Edition
Author: Heinz Prechtl
Publisher: Cambridge University Press, 40 W. 20th Street, New York, NY 10011
Purpose: To diagnose infants with neurological abnormality and predict future neurological
problems. A screening test is also available which can be used to determine the need for further
testing in low risk infants.
Age Range: Full term and preterm infants 38-weeks to 42-weeks gestation

Areas Tested: 12-summary items that include primitive reflexes and responses. Posture (symmetry);
Opistithonus-Eyes (reaction to light, reflexes); Power and passive movements (tone, range of
motion, recall, muscular consistency); Spontaneous and voluntary movements (head control, tremors,
clonus); State

NINE MINUTE WALK TEST (Screening tool) Purpose: Endurance
Age Range: 5-years and older
Areas Tested: Distance walked in 9-minutes. Subtest from a full fitness battery of the Health-
Related Fitness Test.

OBSERVATIONAL GAIT SCALE (OGS) Authors: Mackey
Purpose: Structured scale to rate gait parameters from video recordings
Age Range: 6-years to 21-years
Areas Tested: 7-sections rated: Knee mid-stance; Initial foot contact; Foot contact mid-stance;
Heel rise; Hind foot; Base of support; Assistive devices

ORAL MOTOR/FEEDING RATING SCALE
Author: Judy Michaels Jelm
Purpose: To document oral motor/feeding patterns and feeding function
Age Range: 1-year to adulthood
Areas Tested: 2 major areas of oral motor/feeding behavior: Oral motor/feeding patterns lip/cheek
movement, tongue movement, jaw movement Related areas of feeding function: self-feeding, adaptive
feeding equipment, diet adaptation, position, sensitivity, food retention, swallowing, oral-
facial structures

OUCHER SCALE
Author : J.E. Beyer.
Publisher: (1984). The Oucher: A user manual and technical report. Evanston, IL: The Hospital
Play Equipment Co.
Purpose: Measures self reporting of pain intensity
Age Range: 5-years to 12-years
Areas Tested: Pain intensity rating scale using actual pictures

PEABODY DEVELOPMENTAL MOTOR SCALES SECOND EDITION (PDMS-2)
Author: M. Rhonda Folio and Rebecca R. Fewell
Publisher: Pro-ed, 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78757-6897
Purpose: To determine level of motor skill acquisition, detect small changes in motor development
in children with known motor delays or disabilities, and assist in programming for children with
disabilities
Age Range: 1-month to 83-months
Areas Tested: Two hundred forty-nine items divided into two scales which are further divided into
subtests.
Gross Motor Scale: 151-items divided among 3 subtests: Reflexes (primitive, automatic reactions);
Stationary (static, dynamic); Locomotion (walk, run, jump, hop); Object manipulation
(ball handling);
Fine Motor Scale: 98-items divided among 2 subtests: Grasping (basic reach, grasp patterns, hand
use); Visual-motor integration (visual perceptional skills paired with motor, eye hand
coordination)

PEDIATRIC CLINICAL TEST OF SENSORY INTERACTION FOR BALANCE (P-CTSIB) Authors: Crowe, Luyt,
Westcott,
Purpose: Measures sensory system effects on stationary standing postural control (balance) Age
Range: 4-years to 10-years

Areas Tested: 6 conditions: Standing on floor with eyes open, eyes closed, and with dome (eyes
open, but vision stabilized); Standing on foam with eyes open, eyes closed, and with dome (eyes
open, but vision stabilized)

PEDIATRIC EVALUATION OF DISABILITY INVENTORY (PEDI)
Authors: Stephen M. Haley, Wendy J. Coster, Larry H. Ludlow, Jane T. Haltiwarger, and Peter J.
Andrellas
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 7825-37019
Purpose: To determine functional capabilities and performance, monitor progress in functional skill
performance, and evaluate therapeutic or rehabilitative program outcome in children with
disabilities
Age Range: 6-months to 7-years, 6-months
Areas Tested: 271-items divided into 3 subtests in the Functional Skill Scale: Self care (eating,
grooming, dressing, bathing, toileting); Mobility (transfers, indoors and outdoors mobility);
Social function (communication, social interaction, household and community tasks). Also
environmental modification and amount of caregiver assistance is systematically recorded in
Modification Scale and Caregiver Assistance Scale

PEDIATRIC QUALITY OF LIFE INVENTORY (PEDS QL)
Author: James W. Varni
Purpose: To measure health related quality of life
Age Range: 2-years to 18-years
Areas Tested: The generic core scale consists of 23 items measuring the core dimensions of health
from the World Health Organization, physical, emotional, and social functioning, as well as school
functioning. The test contains child self-report forms for children 5 and older and parent
proxy forms for children 2-18 years of age. Disease-Specific Modules are available for children
with asthma, rheumatology, diabetes, cancer, and cardiac conditions.

POSNA PEDIATRIC MUSCULOSKELETAL FUNCTIONAL HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE
Author : L.H. Daltroy, M.H. Liang, A.H Fossel, & M.J. Goldberg
Publisher: (1998). Pediatric Outcomes Instrument Development Group.
Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of North America. Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics, 18, 561-571.
Purpose: Used to assess functional health outcomes, generally post orthopedic surgery. Can also
examine child-parent agreement.
Age Range: 2-years to 18-years with musculoskeletal disorders
Areas Tested: Scales completed by child and parent to measure upper extremity function, transfers
and mobility, physical function and sports, comfort (pain free), happiness and satisfaction, and
expectations for treatment.

POSTURE AND FINE MOTOR ASSESSMENT OF INFANTS
Author: Jane Case-Smith & Rosemarie Bigsby
Publisher: Therapy Skill Builders, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: Assists in intervention planning and documenting progress over brief periods of time. Age
Range: 2-months to 12-months
Areas Tested: Fine motor scales addressing infant’s reaching and grasping patterns, finger and
thumb movements, release and manipulation.

QUALITY OF WELL-BEING SCALE (QWB)
Author: R.M. Kaplan, J.W. Bush, C.C. Berry
Publisher: (1976). Health status: types of validity and the index of well-being. Health Services
Research, 11, 478-507.
Purpose: Summarizes health across symptoms, problems and functional states. Age Range: 14-years and
older
Areas Tested: 4 scales focus on the physical impact of an illness related to symptoms, functions,
social and mobility levels.

RILEY INFANT PAIN SCALE
Author : J. Schare, B. Joyce, J. Gerkensmeyer, & J. Keck
Publisher: (1996). Comparison of three preverbal scales for postoperative pain assessment in a
diverse pediatric sample. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 12 (6), 348-359.
Purpose: Indication of pain in infants and pre or non verbal children. Age Range: Infants & pre or
non verbal children
Areas Tested: Behavioral observation as an indication of pain

SCALES OF INDEPENDENT BEHAVIOR-REVISED (SIB-R)
Authors: Robert H. Bruininks, Richard W. Woodcock, Richard F. Weatherman, and Bradley K. Hill
Publisher: Riverside Publishing Co., 8420 Bryn Mawr Avenue, Chicago, IL 60631
Purpose: To measure functional independence and adaptive functioning in school, home, employment,
and community settings
Age Range: 3-months to 90+ years
Areas Tested: Adaptive Behavior Full Scale contains 259- items divided into 14 subscales which are
organized into 4 clusters: Motor skills (gross, fine); Social interaction and communication skills
(social interaction, language comprehension and expression); Personal living skills (eating and
meal preparation, toileting, dressing, personal self-care, domestic skills); Community living
skills (time and punctuality, money and value, work skills, home/community orientation); Screening
Forms: Short Form: 40-selected items from the 14 subscales;
Early Development Form: 40-items from developmental areas of Full Scale, for children up to 6 years
of age, and individuals with a developmental level below 8 years of age
Problem Behavior Scale: Divided into 3 broad maladaptive behavior indexes with 8 problem behavior
areas: Internalized Maladaptive Behavior (hurtful to self, unusual or repetitive habits, withdrawal
or inattentive behavior); Asocial Maladaptive Behavior (socially offensive behavior,
uncooperative behavior); Externalized Maladaptive Behavior (hurtful to others, destructive to
property, disruptive behavior)

SCHOOL FUNCTION ASSESSMENT (SFA)
Authors: W. Coster, T. Deeney, J. Haltiwanger, S. Haley
Publisher: Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Rd., San Antonio, TX 78259
Purpose: Measures function in the school environment & can be used to guide program planning
Age Range: Elementary school students
Areas Tested: 3 parts: Participation in school activity settings; Task supports; Activity
Performance. Includes physical and cognitive/behavioral tasks.

SENSORY INTEGRATION AND PRAXIS TEST
Authors: Jane Ayres
Publisher: Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025
Purpose: Measures sensory systems contributions to balance and motor coordination
Age Range: 4 years to 8-years, 11-months
Areas Tested: Numerous tests of postural control, motor coordination & planning, fine and gross
motor function, & sensory integration

SENSORY PROFILE
Author: Winnie Dunn
Publisher: Pearson, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: Determine basic sensory processing patterns in daily life
Age Range: 3-years to 10-years
Areas Tested: 15-minute questionnaire on how child processes and responds to sensory experiences in
everyday life with categories of sensory processing, modulation, and behavioral and emotional
responses. children by their Children are characterized by responsiveness to sensory input
including, Sensory seeking, Emotional reactive, Low endurance/tone, Oral sensory sensitivity,
Inattention/distractibility, Poor registration, Sensory sensitivity, Sedentary, and Fine
motor/perceptual

TEST FOR HIP JOINT INTEGRITY
Authors: Staheli
Purpose: Measures hip joint placement to determine likelihood of dislocation
Age Range: Any age
Areas Tested: Manual movement of the hip joint

TEST OF GROSS MOTOR DEVELOPMENT – 2 (TGMD2)
Author: Dale Ulrich
Publisher: PRO ED, Inc., 8700 Shoal Creek Blvd., Austin, TX 78757-6897
Purpose: Used to identify children who are significantly behind their peers in gross motor skill
development.
Age Range: 3-years to 10-years
Areas Tested: Norm referenced test of 12 gross motor skills involving locomotion and object control

TEST OF INFANT MOTOR PERFORMANCE (TIMP)
Authors: S.K. Campbell, G. Kolobe, G. Girolami, E. Osten, and M. Lenke
Publisher: Infant Motor Performance Scales, LLC, 1301 W. Madison St. #526, Chicago, IL
60607-1953
Purpose: To identify infants with deficits in postural control and to document the effects of
developmental therapy to improve postural control needed for functional movement in early infancy
Age Range: 32-weeks gestational age through 4-months post-term (or full term to 4-months) Areas
Tested: 27 observed behaviors and 26 elicited behaviors assessing the ability to orient and
stabilize the head in space and in response to auditory and visual stimulation in supine, prone,
side lying, upright, and during transitions from one position to another, body alignment when the
head is manipulated, distal selective control of the fingers, wrists, hands, and ankles,
antigravity control of arm and leg movement

TEST OF SENSORY FUNCTION IN INFANTS (TSFI)
Authors: Georgia DeGangi and Stanley Greenspan
Publisher: Western Psychological Services, 12031 Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90025
Purpose: To determine sensory processing and reactivity in infants as an assist to diagnosing
sensory processing dysfunction
Age Range: 4-months to 18-months
Areas Tested: 24-items divided into 5 subtests: Reactivity to tactile deep pressure, Adaptive motor
function, Visual-tactile integration, Ocular motor control, Reactivity to vestibular stimulation

TEST OF VISUAL-MOTOR SKILLS-3 (TVMS-3) Author: Nancy Martin
Publisher: Academic Therapy Publications, 20 Commercial Boulevard, Novato, CA 94949
Purpose: Simple test of visual-motor skills. Age Range: 3-years to 90+years
Areas Tested: Tests of visual perception, motor planning, and execution.

TIMED OBSTACLE AMBULATION TEST (TOAT) Authors:
Purpose: Measures time and quality of walking at several points when walking through a specified
path
Age Range: Any
Areas Tested: Negotiation over different surfaces, picking up an object, stepping up, over, going
around, ducking under obstacles.

TIMED UP AND DOWN STAIRS TEST (TUDS) Authors: C.A. Zaino, V.G. Marchese, S.L. Westcott Publisher:
Pediatric Physical Therapy. 2004:16(2):90-98
Purpose: To measure functional mobility needed to ascend and descend one flight of stairs
Age Range: 8-years to 14-years
Areas Tested: Measurement of the time it takes to ascend and descend one flight of stairs

TIMED UP AND GO (TUG) Authors:
Purpose: Measure of anticipatory standing balance & gait control, motor function through a typical
activity
Age Range: 4-years and older
Purpose: Measurement of the time it takes to rise from a chair, walk 3 meters, turn around and
return to a seated position in the chair.

TODDLER & INFANT MOTOR EVALUATION (TIME)
Authors: Lucy Jane Miller and Gale H. Roid
Publisher: The Psychological Corporation, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 7825-37019
Purpose: To identify those children with mild to severe motor problems, identify patterns of
movement, evaluate motor development over time, plan intervention, and conduct treatment efficacy
research
Age Range: 4-months to 3-years, 6-months
Areas Tested: 8 subtests: 5 primary, 3 optional (clinical)
Primary Subtests: mobility, motor organization, stability, functional performance, social-emotional
abilities
Clinical Subtests: quality rating, component analysis, atypical positions

TRANSDISCIPLINARY PLAY-BASED ASSESSMENT- SECOND EDITION (TPBA2)
Author: Toni W. Linder
Publisher: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., PO Box 10624, Baltimore, MD 21285-0624
Purpose: To identify intervention needs, develop intervention plans and to evaluate progress made
by children
Age Range: Birth to 6-years
Areas Tested: Comprehensive assessment of developmental processes, learning style, and interaction
patterns in 4 developmental areas: Cognitive, Social-emotional, Communication and language, and
Sensorimotor

VINELAND ADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR SCALES, SECOND EDITION (VINELAND-II)
Authors: Sara S. Sparrow, Domenic Cicchetti, & David Balla
Publisher: PsychCorp, 19500 Bulverde Road, San Antonio, TX 78259-3701
Purpose: To measure adaptive behavior
Age Range: Birth to 90-years
Areas Tested: 5 domains each with subdomains including: Communication (receptive, expressive,
written); Daily Living Skills (personal, domestic, community); Socialization (interpersonal
relationships, play and leisure time, coping skills); Motor Skills (fine and gross
motor); Maladaptive Behavior Index (internalizing, externalizing, other)

VISUAL ANALOG SCALE
Author : B. Shields, D. Cohen, C. Harbeck-Weber, J. Powers, & G. Smith
Publisher: (2003). Pediatric pain measurement using a visual analogue scale. Clinical Pediatrics,
April.
Purpose: Measures self report of pain intensity
Age Range: 5-years and older
Areas Tested: Pain intensity rating scale using numerical scale on a vertical or horizontal
continuum

VULPE ASSESSMENT BATTERY-REVISED (VAB-R)
Author: Shirley German Vulpe
Publisher: Slosson Educational Publications, Inc., PO Box 280, East Aurora, NY 14052
Purpose: To determine skill performance, strengths and needs, degree of central nervous system
functioning, and environmental influence on task performance
Age Range: Birth to 6-years
Areas Tested: 1300 developmental tasks divided into 3 sections:
Assessment of Basic Senses and Function (analysis of sensory-motor abilities such as muscle tone,
joint range of motion, coordination, planning);
Assessment of Developmental Behavior: 60-skill sequences contained in 6 domains of behavior:
gross motor, fine motor, language, cognitive processing, adaptive behavior, and activities of daily
living,
Assessment of the Environment: includes caregiver characteristics and interaction and information
regarding the settings such as home, child-care, hospital,
Performance Analysis System composed of 3 sections used to analyze the child's processing related
to task performance

YOUTH QUALITY OF LIFE INSTRUMENT-RESEARCH VERSION (YQOL-R)
Author:
Publisher: The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents
Elsevier Science Ltd. , 360 Park Ave, South, New York, NY 10010-1710
Purpose: To assess quality of life with an emphasis on aspects of positive health. Age Range:
12-years to 18-years
Areas Tested: Self-report measure in four domains: sense of self, social relationships, environment
and general quality of life.

WONG-BAKER FACES SCALE
Author: D.L. Wong, M. Hockenberry-Eaton, D. Wilson, M.L. Winkelstein, P. Schwartz
Publisher: Mosby, Inc., St. Louis
Purpose: To help children communicate their pain intensity effectively
Age Range: 3-years and older
Areas Tested: Pain intensity rating scale using pictures of faces



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